Flatfoots Throughout History
How have humans preserved order over time?
Ancient China (1000 b.c. to 420 a.d.): “Prefects” kept order during the Chu and Jin Kingdoms of the spring and autumn period. Heirarchy= Emperor, governors, local magistrate, prefects, subprefects–each with their own plot of land to patrol.
Ancient Greece: Publicly owned slaves were police. Equipped with rods they would be crowd control at events and provide security. Investigating crimes was a duty of the citizens.
Roman Empire: The Army=police/security.Families organized and managed prosecution themselves.
Rome = 1 million inhabitants
Each with 1,000 “vigiles”
Or firemen + nightwatchmen
All villagers must attend or pay a fine
Held at intervals throughout year.
Groups of Ten=”A Tithing”:
Responsible for reporting other members of their tithing
& Taking them to court.
(For most serious crimes)
= Trial by ordeal
Based on judicium Dei: or the premise that God would help the innocent by performing a miracle on their behalf.
Trial by Ordeal:
Ordeal by fire = the accused carries a red hot iron bar several paces. If the wounds aren’t starting to heal within a few days, they are guilty.
Ordeal by water = accused tied hand and foot and thrown into water. If they float, they’re guilty.
Ordeal by conflict = the winner of a dual was considered in the right.
…Until 1215 (Pope Innocent III outlawed trial by ordeal)
Law Enforcement in America: By the Numbers
$260: Yearly price per sworn officer per US resident
72 Officers: Most killed on one day (9/11/11)
105 Officers: Line of duty deaths 2013
297 Officers: Most killed in one year (1930)
1712: First paid law enforcement (Boston)
1845: First badges issued (Philadelphia)
1863: First pistols issued to all officers(Boston)
1891: First female officer
1914: First cars issued to all officers (Berkeley)
1934: Two way radio first used (Boston)
1955: First computer like calculator used in precinct (New Orleans)
1974: Body armor begins to be used.
History of Law Enforcement in America
1635: Boston’s “night watch” first law enforcement in Colonies
1789: George Washington makes first federal law enforcement with 13 Marshals
1835: Texas Rangers become first statewide law enforcement agency.
1865: Secret Service formed after President Lincoln assassinated
2002: Department of Homeland Security Formed
–The present day:
Policemen are everywhere.